Making Sense of Alcohol
Alcohol content in wine, mainly ethyl alcohol, is expressed in percent by volume of the total liquid. Brix
(symbol Bx) is the measurement of the ratio of dissolved sucrose sugar to water in a liquid such as grape juice
and is expressed in percent or degrees. For example, 25° Bx solution is 25% with 25 grams of sucrose sugar
and 75 grams of water in 100 grams of solution. Knowing the Brix of the grapes prior to fermentation, the potential alcohol of the finished wine can be determined if all of the sugar is fermented. A pre-fermentation Brix or sugar content of 22.5° of grape juice will produce a potential alcohol of 13.0%, 24.8° Brix will produce14.3 %,
and 25,8° Brix will produce 15.1%.
The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) requires that the alcohol be stated on the front or back
label of a bottle of wine (the exception is wines between 7% and 14% alcohol which may be labeled “table
wine” or “light wine”). The tax rates for wine are determined first by whether the wine is over 14% (considered
dessert wine) or under 14% (a table wine) and then by the tolerance (called “label leeway”) levels. Mislabeling
of alcohol content is a serious federal offense.
The tolerance range for under 14% wines is 1.5% (for example, a 12.5% wine may be labeled anywhere from
11% to 14%). The tolerance range for over 14% wines is 1% (a wine labeled 15% may have from 14.01 to 16%
alcohol). It is not permissible for a tolerance level to cross tax classes - for example, a wine at or below 14%
cannot be labeled as above 14%, and a wine above 14% cannot be labeled as less than 14.01%. This tolerance
level allows many wineries to downplay their alcohol levels so be forewarned!
Wonder why so many French and other European wines are labeled 12.5%? It is because wines with more
alcohol than 14% are taxed 50% higher.