PinotFile: 9.31 October 11, 2013
- David Adelsheim: A “Latecomer” Oregon Wine Pioneer
- Hanzell Vineyards: Latest Chardonnay Releases Including the Introduction of De Brye Vineyard Chardonnay
- Hanzell Vineyards First Restaurant Account: Reminiscing the Imperial Dynasty
- Small Sips of Recently Tasted Pinot Noir
- Pinot Briefs
- Early Peek at 2013 Pinot Noir Harvest
David Adelsheim: A “Latecomer” Oregon Wine Pioneer
David Adelsheim likes to call himself a “latecomer” when talk turns to the pioneers of Oregon’s modern wine
industry. Although Richard Sommer, David Lett, Charles Coury, Dick Erath and Dick Ponzi preceded him by a
few years in planting vineyards and establishing wineries in Oregon, David not only founded an iconic
Willamette Valley winery, he became a revered figure in Oregon wine after having participated as a respected
spokesperson on practically every important issue facing the Oregon wine industry through the years. Despite
his prestigious accomplishments, he remains modest and unassuming, with a charming sense of humor, all
attributes that bring him much-deserved respect from his colleagues in Oregon.
David was uniquely one of the name early Oregon wine pioneers that did not immigrate to Oregon. Although
he moved to Portland from Kansas City with his family in 1954, he spent his formative years in Portland. After
studying at University of California at Berkeley and in Germany, he received a bachelor’s degree in German
literature from Portland State University. David became intrigued with artisan wines after a summer trip to
Europe in 1969 with his spouse Ginny, who was a talented sculptor and artist. He soon immersed himself in
the literature of winemaking, and dreamed of planting a vineyard in Oregon.
In 1971, the Adelsheims had a chance meeting with Dick Erath and Bill Blosser at a May Day party. They
directed the couple to seek out a south-facing slope with Jory soil appropriate for viticulture. Shortly after, they
found an appropriate field in the Chehalem Mountains near Newberg, a site that was in a unproven viticultural
area. In 1972, along with the help of friends and family, the Adelsheims first began the planting of 15 acres of
Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Riesling at what became Quarter Mile Lane Vineyard. The original
Pinot Noir plantings in the 2.4-acre Block 1, planted in 1974, were obtained from Charles Coury and sold to
David as Pommard clone. Over time, these Pinot Noir selections have been found to be more likely Martini
clone or a mix of Martini and Pommard clone.
David expanded his wine knowledge by working as a sommelier in Portland restaurants, including the popular
L’Omellette for which David created the first wine list featuring an all-Oregon wine section. David also became
close friends with David Lett of The Eyrie Vineyards, and gained valuable winemaking expertise through him. In
1974, he spent two months in Burgundy, studying at Beaune’s Lycée Viticole, looking at the availability of
various cool climate grape varieties. In the Willamette Valley at the time, Pommard and Wädenswil clones
dominated the Pinot Noir plantings, along with the so-called “Coury clone,” which has never been
Adelsheim Vineyard released its first wines in 1978, a grand total of 1,300 cases, including a Pinot Noir from
Quarter Mile Vineyard labeled “First Harvest,” tiny amounts of Chardonnay and Riesling from the same
vineyard, and Semillon and Merlot from purchased grapes. The initial 6,000-square-foot winery was established
in 1982 adjacent the Adelsheim’s home.
A second property in the Chehalem Mountains, Calkins Lane, was acquired in 1988, and the 36.48-acre
Calkins Lane Vineyard was established there, planted to Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Syrah. Also in 1988, 20
acres of a 60-acre site was leased across the road from the original estate vineyard, and planting began the
following year in what became known as Bryan Creek Vineyard. Jack and Lynn Loacker joined Adelsheim
Vineyard as co-owners in 1994 and assisted in the financing and planting of a 12-acre site on Ribbon Ridge,
Ribbon Springs Vineyard, an important source of the winery’s Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris grapes since 1998.
Today, Adelsheim Vineyard farms 11 estate vineyards over 229 acres in four Willamette Valley sub-AVAs. The
sites have considerable diversity, with both volcanic and sedimentary soils, variable elevations and sizes
ranging from small to large. In addition, grapes are sourced from 13 grower vineyards. Extensive details on all
the vineyard sources are available on the winery’s website. Of the 42,000 case annual production, 65%-75% is
estate grown depending on the vintage.
David handled all the winemaking from 1978 to 1985, followed by Don Kautzner who was the winemaker from
1986 to 1998. David Paige, a University of California at Davis graduate, came on board in 2001 and is the
current winemaker. A modern 35,000-square-foot winery with underground barrel storage was built in 1997 on
the Calkins Lane property, an extensive addition completed in 2008, and a tasting room opened there in 2009.
Chad Vargas has been the viticulturist and vineyard manager since 2006. David Adelsheim (center), David
Paige (right) and Chad Vargas (left) are pictured below. In 2010, David remarked humbly, “It’s a long distance
from 1978....(and) it’s exceeded anything I could have imagined.”
The Adelsheim Vineyard Willamette Valley Pinot Noir blend (so-named since 2004 and often based on Quarter
Mile Lane fruit), and Pinot Gris are the workhorses of the winery. Elizabeth’s Reserve Pinot Noir, named for the
Adelsheim’s daughter, Elizabeth, and sporting a label drawing of Elizabeth by Ginny, has consisted almost
exclusively of Chehalem Mountains fruit since 2000. The vineyard-designated Pinot Noirs (eight in the 2011
vintage) and a “Best of Vintage” Pinot Noir (inaugurated in 2001 with the release of “Vintage 29”) are the
Since the fall of 2011, the Adelsheim Vineyard Pinot Noirs have had new labels. David notes, “We came to
realize that our previous labels did a good job of explaining our past, but did not address our aspirations about
the kind of company we intend to become in the future.” The winery and wines carry the L.I.V.E. certification
and many wines display the OCSW (Oregon Certified Sustainable Wine) logo as well.
The winery is located at 16800 NE Calkins Lane in Newberg and the website is www.adelsheim.com. The
Willamette Valley and Elizabeth Reserve Pinot Noirs are distributed nationally to nearly all states and
internationally. The tasting room is open daily from 11:00-4:00. If you are lucky to catch David at the winery,
you will find he has a wealth of knowledge about Oregon’s wine history.
Adelsheim Vineyard is reason enough to consider David one of Oregon’s most iconic vintners. However, it his
active and often leadership role in practically every important event that has defined Oregon’s fifty-year modern
wine history that is unrivaled. I have listed below some of David’s most notable accomplishments.
* Along with David Lett and others, he lobbied county planning committees to protect designated farmland from
residential growth (Senate Bills 100 and 101) and established the Oregon Department of Land Conservation
* Along with Dick Erath and David Lett, he helped organize the industry and define a governing organization,
submitting a petition for the establishment of a wine commission of Oregon, the Oregon Wine Board, to which
he served as chair.
* He was a founding member of the Yamhill County Wineries Assocation (an archival photo below shows a
bearded David in the lower right).
* He played a role in the creation of the Willamette Valley AVA and the smaller sub-AVAs.
* He was one of a group of winegrowers in 1986 who organized a wine festival in McMinnville, Oregon, known
as the International Pinot Noir Celebration (IPNC), now one of the foremost wine events in the world.
* He helped formulate Oregon wine labeling policies.
* Along with others, worked with Oregon State University to get the University a federal permit to import
grapevines, set up a quarantine and disease evaluation program, and create an industry program to evaluate
* Along with Dr. David Heatherbell, Professor of Enology at Oregon State University, persuaded Dr. Bernard at
ONIVINs in France to share his Dijon Pinot Noir and Chardonnay clones with Oregon.
* He worked with Foundation Plant Services at University of California at Davis to find ways to bring the best
grapevine material to the United States, leading to importation of clones from the ENTAV-INRA research
* He helped broker the deal that brought Maison Joseph Drouhin to Oregon.
* He was an organizer of the first Oregon Pinot Camp in 2000 for retailers and sommeliers.
* He is a supporter of ¡Salud! Oregon Wine Auction and a member of The Vintners Circle for that event.
* Has been and still is, an ambassador for Oregon wine.
* He received the Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012 from the Oregon Wine Board.
* He is a supporter and contributor to the Oregon Wine History Project™ at Linfield College in McMinnville.
I believe in the tenant, “Behind every great man is a great woman,” and that is certainly apt in the case of David
Adelsheim. His spouse, Ginny, worked in the vineyards at Adelsheim Vineyard in the early years, and hosted
and cooked for many winery related social events hosted in her home. She also was actively involved in the
marketing and distribution of the Adelsheim wines. Perhaps her most important contribution to the winery was
the artwork she did for the labels. From 1982 to 2009, Diana Lett’s portrait appeared on the Adelsheim
Vineyard Willamette Valley Pinot Noir. The purpose was to give women behind the scenes more recognition in
the wine industry. Additional portraits appeared on labels of Ginny’s sisters, close friends, and the Adelsheim’s
daughters as a tribute to those who helped establish the winery and brand. Ginny also drew the Adelsheim
Vineyard logo and artwork for other Oregon wine events such as ¡Salud! and IPNC. She now works with
veterans at a local Veteran’s Administration hospital, instructing them in art and sculpturing.
For more information on David and Ginny Adelsheim:
Oregon Wine History Project™: www.digitalcommons.linfield.edu. (includes audio and video interviews with
Adelsheim Vineyard website: www.adelsheim.com. (an excellent website which includes a timeline of the
history of the Oregon wine industry and Adelsheim Vineyard, and succinct information on the major Pinot Noir
I wish to also acknowledge the following sources of ancillary information used in the preparation of this article:
Pacific Pinot Noir (2008), John Winthrop Haeger
The Boys Up North (1997), Paul Pintarich
I recently enjoyed the opportunity to taste through the 2011 vintage of Adelsheim Vineyard Pinot Noirs. The
wines display several outstanding qualities. Alcohols are unobtrusive, oak is deftly integrated, acidities are
bright and refreshing, and tannins are mild and respective, adding up to impressively balanced wines that are
approachable now, but in the case of the single vineyard wines in particular, capable of aging for ten or more
years. The cool growing season in 2011 produced wines that are relatively light in weight compared to say the
2009 vintage in Oregon, but the wines should put on more weight over time in the bottle, much like the wines
did from Oregon’s 2007 vintage. Adelsheim Vineyard Pinot Noirs can be considered exemplary reference
standards for the “Oregon style.”
David Paige’s winemaking regimen for Pinot Noir is as follows. He prefers to pick at modest Brix. The grapes
are de-stemmed into open top fermenters, cold soaked for 4 to 6 days, and fermentation is initiated by
inoculation. Malolactic fermentation is both natural and inoculated. The wines are aged at least 10 months in
25% new French oak barrels using several cooperages. The wines are all filtered, and fined on a case-by-case
basis. The 2011 Pinot Noirs have been in bottle over a year when tasted.
2011 Adelsheim Willamette Valley Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.56, 16,566 cases, $32. 33rd vintage of this
wine. 76% of grapes sourced from Adelsheim estate vineyards with the largest percentage from the Chehalem
Mountains. The remaining 27% were derived from fourteen other non estate vineyards throughout the
Willamette Valley. Aged 10 months in 20% new French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the
glass. Aromas of cherry, raspberry, cut flowers, resinous pine and cinnamon oak. Light in weight with brisk
acidity, featuring tart red cherry and cranberry flavors with oak in the background. A forward drinking wine for
the weekday dinner table.
2011 Adelsheim Elizabeth’s Reserve Willamette Valley Pinot Noir
alc., pH 3.52, 1,306 cases, $55. A best of winery reserve, first bottled in 1986.
72% of the fruit comes from five of the Adelsheim estate vineyards located in the
Chehalem Mountains and Ribbon Ridge.
Moderately light reddish-purple hue in
the glass. Nicely perfumed with bright aromas of fresh cherry pie glaze, rose
petals, spice and oak. A cherry bombast with sneaky intensity, featuring bright,
clean flavors, suave tannins and a lively acid underpinning. Easy to like now
with it’s ample finish, this wine should benefit from cellaring.
2011 Adelsheim Boulder Bluff Vineyard Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.45, 372 cases,
$68. Lynn and Jack Loacker, co-owners of Adelsheim Vineyard, bought this 9.91-acre vineyard in 2000. Soils
are basaltic-origin (volcanic) clay loam. Basalt boulders give the vineyard its name. Three clones were used in
this bottling: QM-1 (from Charles Coury in 1974), “828” or AS-2, and Dijon 777. Aged 10 months in 28% new
French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass. Appealing aromas of cherry, raspberry
and a hint of spice. The relatively light core of red cherry fruit shows good impact on entry and some finishing
power. The mouthwatering acidity, balanced tannins and complimentary oak add to the pleasure. Tasted the
following day from a previously opened and re-corked bottle, the wine had become more aromatic featuring hi-tone
cherry and baking spice aromas. The acidity became quite apparent, ending with a steely, mineral-driven
2011 Adelsheim Bryan Creek Vineyard Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.53, 375 cases,
$75. 19.2-acre vineyard planted to UCD 5, 113, 114, 115 in basaltic-origin (volcanic) clay loam soils. Relatively
high in elevation and one of the estate vineyards to be harvested. Aged in 27% new French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple hue in the glass. Demure, but appealing aromas of cherries, tea and rose
petals. Relatively light in weight, but very flavorful, offering juicy flavors of red cherries and berries wrapped in
soft tannins. Very polished with a refreshing vein of acidity and soprano finish.
2011 Adelsheim Calkins Lane Vineyard Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.50, 405 cases,
$68. This site was formerly a hazelnut and walnut orchard named after a family that settled the area in the
1890s and lived there into the 1960s. Pinot Noir first planted here in 1996 and the first single vineyard Pinot
Noir from the property came in the 2001 vintage. Clones are 115, 667 and 777 planted in marine sedimentary
soils. Warmest, lowest elevation and earliest to harvest of the estate vineyards. Aged 10 months in 34% new
French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass. Well-endowed with bright aromas of
black cherries, cassis and iron. Enticing middleweight flavors of black cherry, pomegranate, cola and subtle
oak, balanced by ripe, firm tannins. Very polished and nicely balanced, finishing with a refreshing burst of
2011 Adelsheim Quarter Mile Lane Vineyard Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.52, 82 cases, $105. First planted in 1972, this vineyard is
the oldest Adelsheim estate vineyard and is named for the road that forms the
northern boundary of the property. This wine comes from a 2.4-acre Block 1
planted in 1974 with what is apparently Martini clone or a mix of Martini and
Pommard clones. Basaltic-origin (volcanic) clay-loam soils. Aged 10 months in
33% new French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass.
Plenty of energy in the hi-tone aromas of cherries, baking spice and oak. Very
classy on the palate with satisfying roundness and a velvety mouth feel. Flavors
of red cherries and berries are accented with a noticeable but not obtrusive oak
sheen. The juicy, vivid finish is exceptional. Still appealing the following day from a previously opened and recorked
bottle with soft, generous red fruit flavors.
2011 Adelsheim Ribbon Springs Vineyard Ribbon Ridge Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.59, 352 cases, $68.
Ninth Ribbon Springs vineyard-designated wine. This 60-acre vineyard has high-density plantings of Pommard
(UCD5 and UCD4), Wädenswil (UCD1A), 4407, and Dijon clones 113, 114, 115, 667 and 777 in sandstonebased,
sedimentary soils. This wine is composed of UCD 4 and UCD5. Aged 10 months in 29% new French
Medium reddish-purple color in the glass. Distinctive aromas of black fruits, clove, cola and oak
spice. Appealing fullness on the mid palate with moderately rich flavors of black cherry and blackberry framed
with a hint of spice and anise. Plenty of pizzaz to please with a satiny texture, polished tannins and a palate
staining black cherry explosion on the finish.
2011 Adelsheim Nicholas Vineyard Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.47, 161 cases, $90.
This vineyard was first planted by Nick and Sheila Nicholas in 2001 who make their own wines under the Anam
Cara label. 100% clone 667 planted in Laurelwood soils (wind-blown ice age sediment) covering basalt. Aged
10 months in 33% new medium-toast French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass.
Deep aromas of fresh red cherry tart and spice are echoed on the palate. Husky tannins create a firm mouth
feel and a complimentary note of oak adds interest. The peacock tail finish is special. The wine still showed
exceptional character and balance the following day from a previously opened and re-corked bottle. Did I
mention the finish?
2011 Adelsheim Zenith Vineyard Eola-Amity Hills Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.52, 143 cases, $90. Third
single vineyard wine from this vineyard that was originally planted in the early 1980s by Pat O’Connor. Kari
and Tim Ramey bought it in 2002 and renamed it, expanding the plantings to 70 acres. Clones are 667, “828,”
115, and Pommard planted in volcanic and sedimentary soils. Aged 10 months in 31% new medium-toast
French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass. Seductive aromatics offering scents of
black cherries, forest floor and spice. Soft in the mouth and relatively light in weight, with appealing black
cherry flavor set off by an earthy note. The tannins are nicely balanced and the good acidity adds grip. Even
better the following day from a previously opened and re-corked bottle with glorious aromatics.
2011 Adelsheim Temperance Hill Vineyard Eola-Amity Hills Pinot Noir
13.0% alc., pH 3.60, 363 cases, $68. 100% clone 667 planted in
basaltic-origin (volcanic) soils. This 100-acre vineyard was established
by Edward and L.S. Koo in 1981. Adelsheim replanted on of the ideal
sections of the vineyard. A late ripening site. Fifth single vineyard
bottling. Aged 10 months in 33% new medium toast French oak barrels.
Medium reddish-purple color in the glass. The nose is striking with
bright aromas of Bing cherries, raspberries, and spice. Outstanding depth and
length of flavor featuring a core of dark red cherries and berries with a hint of
graham, cola and spice. Seductively ethereal in the mouth, with firm, supportive
tannins, and a long, long, long finish. A brilliant wine with superb balance. Still extraordinary when tasted the
following day from a previously opened and re-corked bottle.
Hanzell Vineyards: Latest Chardonnay Releases Including the Introduction of De Brye Vineyard Chardonnay
Countess Barbara de Brye purchased the Hanzell Vineyards estate in 1975 as a business investment and the
family’s vacation retreat. Her son, Alexander, visited the Hanzell estate for the first time at age five months
and spent his youthful years exploring every oak tree and vineyard path on the property. At sixteen years of
age, he inherited the Hanzell estate, shouldering the care, maintenance and business management of a wine
icon that has been revered since its founding in 1953.
In 1998, Alexander assumed the helm of Hanzell Vineyards, and along with an International Board of Directors
and winemaker Bob Sessions, created and implemented a fifteen year plan to sustain and protect the future of
Hanzell Vineyards. Alexander developed a design to slowly grow Hanzell to 46 acres of vineyards and slowly
increase production from 3,000 to 8,000 cases. Dr. Paul Skinner of Terra Space was hired to direct a vineyard
replant to improve under performing vineyard blocks, adding to not only St. George rootstock but other new
rootstock selections. The work in the existing vineyards continues today. New vineyards were planted between
1999 and 2008, and a new barrel aging cave and winery building were completed in 2004.
The 16-acre de Brye Vineyard was first planted in 1976 by Bob Sessions and José Ramos Esquivel in a field
dotted with grand oaks and an expansive view of San Pablo Bay, Mount Tamalpais and San Francisco.
This vineyard, now in its 37th year, could be considered the heart of the estate since it has supplied the power
behind Hanzell’s Estate Chardonnay since the mid-1980s. Consisting of 15 acres (13 acres planted originally
and two more acres added in 1999), the de Brye Vineyard is located close to the top of the property with a
southern exposure and a 10% slope to its terraced vine rows. It is planted with Hanzell clone Chardonnay and
Pinot Noir budwood propagated from the Ambassador’s 1953 Vineyard on St. George rootstock. The soils are
Red Hill Series clay loam, which is moderately well drained and underlain with a mix of basaltic rock, and
typically found on ridgetops and mountainous uplands. A photo of the de Brye Vineyard and a schematic of the
Hanzell vineyards is included below.
The de Brye legacy has expanded with the introduction of the first single vineyard selection bottling from the de
Brye Vineyard, the second release as part of a series of new Estate Single Vineyard wines introduced for the
first time this year. The first wine, the Sessions Vineyard Pinot Noir, was introduced in March 2013 and was
discussed and reviewed in the PinotFile, Volume 9, Issue 17 at www.princeofpinot.com/article/1390/.
2011 was a challenging vintage in the Sonoma Valley. Rain and cold weather during bloom caused a
considerable amount of shatter (millerandage). Chardonnay yields were down on the Hanzell estate by 40%
with some blocks down as much as 50%. Because of the extra ground moisture from the rain coupled with the
low crop load, the vines produced additional shoots and leaves requiring extra suckering, leaf pulling and
hedging passes to keep the canopy in balance with the light crop. Harvest began on September 20 after one
of the coolest growing seasons on record.
According to winemaker Michael McNeill, traditional Hanzell practices of limited skin contact, carefully
controlled fermentations, and a moderate use of new French oak were employed. Through a rigorous
evaluation of barrel lots and then the blending process, only six barrels of de Brye Chardonnay were selected
to be bottled as the inaugural de Brye Vineyard Chardonnay. Despite the vintage vagaries, McNeill said, “The
de Brye Chardonnay expresses the qualities and age-worthy style of this unique estate.” The Hanzell Estate
Chardonnay also underwent a rigorous evaluation and blending process such that only select barrels were
included in the final blend.
The 2012 vintage offered an ideal spring with warm sunny days interspersed with well-timed rains. Set
resulted in dense, full clusters. The summer was noteworthy in that it lacked the typical heat waves. Still,
several thinning passes were required to maintain the balanced low yields that are preferred. Harvest began
for the Hanzell “Sebella” Chardonnay on August 27 in the Zellerback Vineyard with the Robert Young and Old
Wente clones, and concluded on September 11 with the Hanzell clone from the Ramos Vineyard.
2012 Hanzell “Sebella” Sonoma Valley Chardonnay
13.5% alc., pH 3.20, TA
0.72, 3,564 cases, $36. Sourced from younger estate vines. Bottled April 2-10,
2013. 100% stainless steel fermented with no malolactic fermentation. Finished
and aged for 3 to 6 months in 1 to 4-year-old French oak barrels.
yellow color and clear in the glass. An array of aromas leap out of the glass, including white peach, lemon zest, fresh cut apple, and a hint of just-baked croissant. The nose
never wavers over a one hour period in the glass. Fruit is front and center with
flavors of white grapefruit, green apple and lemon. Slightly steely, yet soft and
smooth, ending with a good snap of acidity. Very satisfying and friendly for early
2011 Hanzell Sonoma Valley Chardonnay
14.5% alc., pH 3.30, TA 0.68, 1,782 cases, $75. Bottled April
22-25, 2013. Heritage clones, rigorous pruning. Aged 18 months total with 12 months in 33% new French oak
Moderately light golden yellow color and clear in the glass. Lovely aromas of lemon curd, honey,
buttery brioche, hazelnut and ocean breeze. Attention-grabbing intensity on the mid palate with energetic
flavors of lemon, apple and spice, finishing with power, focus and razor sharp, palate cleansing acidity.
The wine offers impressive harmony that bodes well for longevity.
2011 Hanzell de Brye Vineyard Sonoma Valley Chardonnay
alc., pH 3.30, TA 0.69, 152 cases, $78. Bottled April 25, 2013.
Inaugural release. From a vineyard planted in 1976. St. George
rootstock and Hanzell clone selection massale from the original
Ambassador’s 1953 Vineyard. Aged 18 months total with 12 months in
33% new French oak barrels.
Moderate golden yellow color and clear
in the glass. Reserved, but complex nose, offering aromas of lemon,
grilled pineapple, baked apple and hazelnut. Very creamy and
harmonious on the palate with the lemon and apple fruits draping the structure
such that the wine feels sleek. More body and fullness than the estate bottling
with added power on the finish. Remarkably silky on the finish as well, literally slipping off the back of the palate. Still superb when tasted from a previously
opened and re-corked bottle two days later. This wine is still young and will benefit from a few years of
cellaring to reach its apogee.
Hanzell wines are available for purchase by guests visiting the new Hanzell Vineyard’s website at
www.hanzell.com. The Collector Program guarantees an allocation of Hanzell Vineyards Estate Pinot Noir and
Chardonnay and the Ambassador’s Circle Exclusive and Private Collector levels provide access to the
Ambassador’s 1953 Vineyard releases, the Hanzell wine library annual offering and the holiday magnum
offering. Future Estate Single Vineyard wines include a 2011 Ambassador’s 1953 Vineyard Chardonnay and
single vineyard wines from Ramos Vineyard and Day Vineyard. Visitors are received by appointment only.
Two levels of visits are offered, both of which include a guided vineyard tour and seated tastings. The winery
should be on every pinotphile’s bucket list of iconic wineries to visit.
Hanzell Vineyards First Restaurant Account: Reminiscing the Imperial Dynasty
Hanford, California is a relatively small San Joaquin Valley town that became a destination for gourmands
seeking the Chinoise cuisine (a fusion of Chinese and French cooking) of third-generation Californian Richard
C. Wing at his Imperial Dynasty restaurant. For nearly fifty years, a long list of celebrity diners including Walt
Disney and Bing Crosby flew to Hanford just to eat there. A cadre of New York attorneys flew to the restaurant
four times a year. Many groups traveled frequently from the Bay Area, Fresno and Southern California by car
or train in a gastronomic pilgrimage to this creative restaurant. I loved dining there so much that I made the
four-hour drive with friends from my home in Orange County to eat there at least three times a year over a
twenty year span.
Perhaps even more implausible than the exalted culinary tradition established by Richard in Hanford’s China
Alley, California’s first Chinatown, is the fact that the restaurant had a distinguished wine cellar housed in a
former opium den that held some 60,000 bottles and a Wine Spectator Grand Award winning 1,100 entry wine
list. Richard’s brother, Ernie, was instrumental in establishing the early reputation of the Imperial Dynasty wine
As a knowledgeable wine buff, Ernie introduced the restaurant’s wine list in 1957, and soon filled the Imperial
Dynasty wine cellar with collectible California wines from Beaulieu, Charles Krug, David Bruce, Freemark
Abbey and Heitz Cellars, and French wines from Domaine de la Romanee-Conti, Petrus, Lafite, Mouton,
Latour and Haut-Brion. When possible, Ernie would typically age the restaurant’s wines for four or five years
before putting them on the wine list so they could be enjoyed at or closer to their peak.
Although Ernie died at a relatively young age in 1972, Richard maintained the extensive wine cellar. He tasted
wine regularly, and the proper marriage of food and wine became his passion. Richard knew wine and how to
match wine with his cuisine, but like many of his varied talents, he always downplayed his expertise.
The Imperial Dynasty was the first restaurant account for both Hanzell Vineyards and Stony Hill wineries, and
one of the first restaurant accounts for several other iconic Napa Valley wineries including Heitz Cellars and
Although the restaurant had a “regular” menu of ala carte Continental and Chinese specialties, out-of-town
diners opted for the gourmet prix fixe menu arranged by advanced reservation. The gourmet menu consisted
of six courses, accompanied by appropriate wines for each course suggested by Richard. The menu was hand
written by Richard for every table each night. A copy of a gourmet menu from dinners I attended in 1986 that
included Hanzell Chardonnay and 1992 featuring Hanzell Pinot Noir are reproduced below.
A tour of the wine cellar always preceded dinner, where diners could search out gems to accompany their
dinner or augment Richard’s selections. Prices for wine and food were extremely reasonable by usual
restaurant standards of the time.
Richard had a captivating sense of humor, and as a joke, he penned a menu for me in 1994, with a note that
my good friend, Alain Wu, would pay for the wine selection. We never partook of this menu and wine selection,
but it shows that Richard knew of great wines.
Sadly, the Imperial Dynasty was never sold upon Richard’s retirement, perhaps because his was an impossible
act to follow. Finally, after manning the stove at the Imperial Dynasty for almost fifty years, Richard retired at
85 years of age and the restaurant was shuttered. Richard passed away at 89 years of age in 2010.
I have often reflected on the many times I spent at the table with him, touched by his unwavering devotion to
his profession and his ebullient personality. He called himself a “humble Chinese chef,” but he was highly
venerated by his family and a cadre of culinary devotees alike.
The photo below shows me in my younger days with my lovely wife, Patti, who patiently endured the many
bacchanalia's we attended at the Imperial Dynasty.
For further reading: Noodles through Escargots, Arlanne Wing and Steve Banister, 2011.
Small Sips of Recently Tasted Pinot Noir
2011 C. Donatiello Winery Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
13.4% alc., pH 3.56, TA 0.63, 513 cases, $40.
Sourced from multiple vineyard sites throughout the appellation. Aged 10 months in 25% new French oak
Moderate reddish-purple color in the glass. Oak overwhelms the fruit in this wine which is light and
crisp on the palate, featuring red cherry and raspberry fruit flavors with a citrus-imbued finish.
2011 C. Donatiello Winery Hervey Vineyard Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
13.2% alc., 101 cases, $60.
The 10-acre Hervey Vineyard is located above Atascadero Creek in the hills just south of Sebastopol. Soils are
Goldridge. Aged 10 months in 25% new French oak barrels.
Moderately dark reddish-purple color in the glass.
The nose has some reduction upon opening which disappears by the following day when re-tasted from a
previously opened bottle. Ripe black cherry aromas accented by charred, smoky oak. Deep Bing cherry and
cola flavor with a firm, but balanced tannic backbone. The wine is underlain with crisp acidity producing a
tangy, citrus-driven finale. This wine warrants more time in bottle to better integrate the oak.
2011 C. Donatiello Winery Tina Marie Vineyard Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
13.7% alc., pH 3.44, TA
0.62, 126 cases, $55. Aged 10 months in 35% new French oak barrels.
Moderately dark reddish-purple color
in the glass. The nose offers enticing aromas of black cherry, rose petals, tea, forest floor and cedary oak.
The tasty essence of fresh Bing cherries has a hint of spice and conifer in the background. The tannins are
supple and the wine sports a citrus-infused, sweet cherry finish.
2011 C. Donatiello Winery Riddle Vineyard Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
13.9% alc., 52 cases, $N/A,
sold out. Aged 10 months in 40% new French oak barrels.
Medium reddish-purple color in the glass. A bright
wine with a spring in its step. Aromas and flavors of dark Bing cherry and raspberry with smooth, supportive
tannins and a good cut of acidity. Seamless and easy to like. Tasted the following day from a previously
opened and re-corked bottle, the black cherry fruit had drifted to the ripe side.
2011 C. Donatiello Winery Block 15 Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
alc., pH 3.45, TA 0.68, 127 cases, $48. A blend of vineyards featuring clone 777.
Aged 10 months in 25% new French oak barrels.
Moderate reddish-purple color
in the glass. The nose hits all the high notes with effusive aromas of dark
cherries and complimentary seasoned oak. Delicious essence of Bing cherries
with a hint of spice and red licorice flavors. The mid palate richness carries
through to the sleek, long finish. The wine is beautifully composed with supple
tannins and good acidity. Thoroughly satisfying with easy accessibility and my
clear favorite of the C. Donatiello Pinot Noirs in 2011.
Note: Chris Donatiello originally founded his namesake label with partner Bill Hambrecht in 2008 on Westside
Road at the site of the former Belvedere Winery. The wines were quite good, but the classy operation ceased
operation at this site and has been reincarnated, still in Healdsburg, with the original winemaker, Webster
Marquez who worked at Williams Selyem and is one of a trio of winemakers at Anthill Farms. A tasting room
has opened on the plaza on Center Street in downtown Healdsburg.
2011 Carmel Road Panorama Vineyard Arroyo Seco Monterey County Pinot Noir
15.0% alc., pH 3.75, TA
0.55, $35. Inaugural vintage. From an estate vineyard that is planted to high density and certified sustainable.
Primarily clones 667 and 777 with added 2A and 23. Aged 15 months in 25% new French oak barrels.
reddish-purple color in the glass. Aromas of blackberry jam, cardamom spice, forest floor and oak vanillin.
Big, ripe and full-bodied with a luscious core of boysenberry, blackberry, black plum, spice, dark chocolate and
oak flavors. The high alcohol contributes to the creamy mouth feel. The finish is driven by sappy fruit flavors
with a bit of oak and heat lingering on the finish.
2011 Gary Farrell Hallberg Vineyard Dijon Clones Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
14.4% alc., pH 3.45,
TA 0.57, 400 cases, $60. Released May 2013. 100% de-stemmed, 5-day cold soak in small, open-top tanks.
Aged 8 months in 40% new French oak barrels.
Medium reddish-purple color in the glass. Aromas of black
cherries, baking spice, dried rose petals and new oak lead to middleweight, perfectly ripened flavors of dark
cherries, black raspberries and oak spice. A spot of cola, sassafras and mushroom earthiness adds interest.
Smooth on the palate with supportive tannins and welcoming accessibility.
2011 Gary Farrell Hallberg Vineyard Clone 777 7% Whole Cluster Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
14.3% alc., pH 3.52, TA 0.60, 260 cases, $65.
Released September 2013. One of a new series of wines called the
(Winemaker’s) Inspiration Series for limited release. Inaugural bottling. From
Block C at the Hallberg Vineyard, one of the coolest parts of the vineyard
planted to clone 777. Aged 13 months in 40% new French oak barrels.
reddish-purple color in the glass. The nose offers the essence of black cherries
with accents of cardamom spice, dark red rose petals and oak vanillin. Delicious
core of fresh black cherry and red raspberry fruits with a hint of exotic spice,
savory herbs and cedary oak. The wine is soft and smooth on the palate with
pleasing finesse, and finishes with a well-endowed cherry-driven finish.
2011 Twomey Bien Nacido Vineyard Santa Maria Valley Pinot Noir
12.9% alc., pH 3.48, TA 0.58, $54.
Released September 14, 2013. From organically farmed hillside plantings including Block N, one of the
original 1972 plantings of the Martini clone on its own roots. Aged 13 months sur lie in 58% new and 42%
once-used French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass. A number of aromas jump
out of the glass, including black cherry, black currant, baking spice and toasty oak. Sleek and satiny on the
palate, with flavors of red cherries, raspberries, pomegranates, cola and vanilla. The modest fruit
concentration is buoyed by gossamer tannins and juicy acidity.
Portland Monthly Oregon’s 50 Best Wines 2013 “Sure-bet splurges” included 2011 Bethel
Heights Casteel Reserve Eola-Amity Hills Pinot Noir ($60) and 2011 Antica Terra Botanica Willamette Valley
Pinot Noir ($75). “Prized Pinots” included 2010 Soter Mineral Springs Ranch Yamhill-Carlton Pinot Noir ($50),
2010 Colene Clemens Vineyards Reserve Chehalem Mountains Pinot Noir ($45), 2011 Cristom Vineyards Mt.
Jefferson Willamette Valley Pinot Noir ($30), 2011 Ayres Vineyards & Winery Willamette Valley Pinot Noir
($25), 2011 Cameron Winery Dundee Hills Pinot Noir ($26), 2011 Love & Squalor Willamette Valley Pinot Noir
($24), 2011 Crowley Wines Willamette Valley Pinot Noir ($24), 2010 The Eyrie Vineyards Estate Dundee Hills
Pinot Noir ($35), 2011 Patricia Green Cellars Estate Vineyard Ribbon Ridge Pinot Noir ($30), and 2011 Vincent
Wine Co Ribbon Ridge Pinot Noir ($24).
Restoration of Hoffman Mountain Ranch The Hoffman Mountain Ranch (HMR) and Winery was
developed by Dr. Stanley Hoffman in the early 1970s at an elevation of 2,200 feet in the Adelaida District AVA
in the western hills of Paso Robles. The 1,200-acre site was originally planted under the guidance and
direction of Andre Tchelistcheff in 1964. HMR began producing HMR wines, including Pinot Noir, in 1972, with
Tchelistcheff as a winemaking consultant. The original HMR winery is considered the first modern commercial
winery in Paso Robles. The historic HMR property has been purchased and renovated by Georges and Daniel
Daou of DAOU Vineyards and Winery. The Daou brothers founded DAOU Winery 8 years ago, planting their
mountain property with mostly Bordeaux grape varieties. In 2012, they purchased the remaining 112 acres of
Hoffman Mountain Ranch, and began restoring the half century old redwood winery. The historic cellar is being
used for the 2013 harvest. A ribbon cutting ceremony will be held October 20 with special guests Dr. and Mrs.
Stanley Hoffman and Dorothy Tchelistcheff.
Anderson Valley Trade Tasting in San Francisco On Tuesday, November 12, the Anderson
Valley Winegrowers Association (AVWA) is organizing a tasting of wines from 25 to 30 Anderson Valley
wineries at Fort Mason Center, with food pairings by local restaurants and purveyors. Other upcoming AVWA
events include the Ninth Annual International Alsace Varietals Festival (February 8-9, 2014), the Seventeenth
Annual Anderson Valley Pinot Noir Festival (May 16-18, 2014) and the Anderson Valley Barrel Tasting
Weekend (July 26-27, 2014). For information visit www.avwines.com or contact Kristy Charles at
Santa Barbara County Vintners’ Association Celebration of Harvest Festival This
annual weekend event, held October 11-14, 2013, will feature the signature Celebration of Harvest Festival on
Saturday, October 12, featuring more than 100 winery members of the Santa Barbara County Vintner’s
Association pouring at the Rancho Sisquoc Winery (tickets are $85). For details about the event, check
www.sbcountywines.com. Visit the Santa Ynez Valley Hotel Association website at www.syvha.com for
Maison Louis Jadot Acquires Resonance Vineyard in Oregon Jacques Lardiere, the
vigneron for Maison Louis Jadot for forty years who retired in 2012, apparently is enamored enough with the
potential of Oregon Pinot Noir to leave retirement to craft wine from the 32-acre Resonance Vineyard. He has
moved to the Yamhill Valley to direct the farming of the vineyard and winemaking program which will take place
at Trisaetum Winery. Initially, the focus will only be on estate Pinot Noir. The vineyard, located in the Yamhill-
Carlton was owned by Kevin and Carla Chambers whose family have farmed in Oregon for five generations,
and was originally planted in 1981. The Pinot Noirs from this vineyard have been consistently superb and I
have highly rated examples from Sineann Winery and Big Table Farm. This will be the first foray for Jadot in
the New World, but probably not the last as it has become too costly to expand in Burgundy. Read more in
“Welcoming Jadot,” in the Oregon Wine Press, October 2013. In The Drinks Business (October 7, 2013), the
president of Maison Louis Jadot, Pierre-Henri Gagey, outlined his aims for the company’s Oregon project. He
said, “We are not trying to reproduce Burgundy in Oregon - we are searching for purity and truth. If we can do
that then we can be successful.”
Soliste Continues Innovative String of Wines The latest release from Soliste, the 2011 St.
Andelain Lake County Sauvignon Blanc, is a homage to the incomparable, late Didier Dagueneau, the “Master
of St. Andelain.” Dagueneau single handedly revolutionized Sauvignon Blanc, bringing it to up the status of any
Grand Cru white Burgundy. Known for his wild mane of unkempt hair and bushy beard, he was an iconoclast
among vignerons and sommeliers. Though he had no formal winemaking training, he was infatuated with great
Burgundies and used methods uncommon to Pouilly-Fumé, including severe pruning for drastically low yields,
hand-harvesting of fruit over several successive passes through the vineyards, vineyard-designate bottlings,
skin contact, and barrel fermentation. He also created his own barrels, the most famous being a cigar shape
barrel. Dagueneau’s wines became the unchallenged leaders of Pouilly-Fumé, including Pur Sang, Silex,
Buisson Renard and Asteroide. Soliste aim is keep the dream alive with their latest release from a single organic
vineyard in Lake County, California, an area known for Sauvignon Blanc excellence. The grapes were destemmed
and allowed 36 hours of skin contact to create unique richness and depth. After pressing, the wine
was barrel fermented and aged for 16 months in Didier’s creation, the cigar barrel. There was no malolactic
fermentation to preserve acidity, verve and length. Aldo Sohm, the Chief Sommelier at New York’s Le
Bernardin restaurant, said, “This is the best white wine I have ever tasted, period, anyplace, anytime.” I can’t
argue with that statement, having recently tasted the wine myself. Only 223 cases produced, $55, sold by
allocation to preferred list customers at www.soliste.com. Soliste wines are also available at many of the finest
restaurants in major metropolitan areas in the United States.
Oregon Wine Industry Booming According to the Oregon Wine Board, the Oregon wine industry
has an economic affect of nearly $3 billion annually. The amount of vineyard acreage and number of wineries
has increased markedly each year since 2001 with 850 wineries now in production sourcing from more than
20,000 acres of vines. The American Wine Consumer Coalition in August gave Oregon the top ranking as the
most friendly to wine consumers.
Wine Catches Beer in Popularity As reported in the Wine Spectator, October 31, 2013, a Gallup
poll in early July found that wine and beer were in a statistical tie as far as popularity among alcohol-consuming
participants in the poll. The Gallup poll reported, “U.S. drinkers‘ preferences have shifted to the point that
drinkers are now just as likely to say they drink wine most often as to say beer.” The Beverage Information
Group 2012 Wine Handbook latest figures support the continued strength of U.S. wine consumption which
increased for the 19th straight year. The wine industry grew 1.9 percent in 2012 to reach 318.0 million 9-liter
cases. The most popular wines that drove the increase were un-oaked Chardonnay, Rosé, sweet wines,
sparkling wines and red blends. Total wine sales in 2012 were $28.9 billion. DTC sales continue to grow, now
contributing $1.4 billion to the industry.
Latest Screw Cap Statistics Wine Spectator (April 30, 2013) reported the following percentage of
wines bottled under screw caps: New Zealand 91%, Australia 70%, Oregon 25%, Argentina 15%, Washington
12%, California 8%, Spain 7%, France 3% and Italy 2%.
Josh Jensen Recognized in Wine Spectator In the October 15, 2013, issue of the Wine
Spectator, James Laube pens a memorable tribute to Josh Jensen, the founder of Calera Wine Company.
Titled, “Pinot Pioneer: Josh Jensen Made His Dreams of Burgundy Come True in California,” a few interesting
facts came out of the article. The first property he bought in San Benito County in 1975 consisted of 320 acres
and was priced at $18,000 and his second 320-acre property, purchased in 1982, cost $150,000, presumably
because it had a water source. His first wine was a Zinfandel produced from purchased grapes. His first Pinot
Noirs, from Jensen, Reed and Selleck vineyards, one barrel each, were made in 1978 and bottled in 375 ml
format. All Pinots except de Villiers Vineyard are 100% whole cluster. Jacques Seyesses of Domaine Dujac in
Burgundy noted in the article, “To me they (Calera wines) are the most Burgundian of California Pinots, and the
ones that I have tasted that really age well.” I too find the wines are often relatively unapproachable when
young, much like top red Burgundies, but blossom beautifully over time in the cellar.
Orange Coast Magazine Wine Dudes Blog I have been writing a blog along with Eric Anderson,
the other “Wine Dude.” Check out my recent posts on “Wine Label Lingo,” “Free Wine Search Websites,” and
“Grape Radio,” at www.orangecoast.com/winedudes. I feature “Must-Try Wines of the Week” as well,
which are most often a North American Pinot Noir or Chardonnay.
Early Peek at 2013 Pinot Noir Harvest
Adam Lee, proprietor and winemaker of Siduri Wines (www.siduri.com), travels the states of California and
Oregon sourcing grapes from multiple wine regions for his excellent appellation-designated and vineyarddesignated
Pinot Noirs. I don’t know of another Pinot Noir winemaker who tackles such a formidable task, so I
look to him when I want an overall view of a vintage. When I spoke with Adam on October 8, harvest was
“First off, the 2013 vintage was early. People usually associate early with hot, but the growing season was not
particularly hot. It wasn’t cold like 2011 or even 2010, rather normal to slightly warmer. The vines budded out
early, set early and harvested early. We picked in August for the first time ever as a winery.”
“The crops were big. They may not be quite as big as 2012 (I haven’t calculated it yet), but it is close. Some
vineyards threw a big crop, but a few did not, so that is probably what swung the vintage to being overall
slightly smaller. Sta. Rita Hills was bigger in 2013 than 2012, Santa Lucia Highlands was slightly bigger, and
Russian River Valley and Sonoma Coast were more variable with some sites bigger than others.”
“Sugars were somewhat all over the place. It wasn’t a tremendously big year as far as Brix goes, and it didn’t
strike me as a year where you always needed high Brix to have good ripeness. We picked at 20º Brix and at
28º Brix. I think the larger crops kept Brix accumulation in check.”
“Interestingly, there always seemed to be something out of whack with the juice numbers. In many cases, it
was the malic acid numbers which were high. Usually as the grapes ripen, the malic acid goes down as a
percentage of total acid and around one-third at harvest, but that did not happen frequently this year. For
example, if the juice was brought in at a pH of 3.45 (pretty good), the malic was half or more of the total acid,
so you found yourself having to add acid even though the initial pH was pretty good. The YAN (nutrient levels in
the must) were very low generally and it is thought that this was due to the drought.”
“How are the wines? They are at least very good, maybe better, but I am not certain they are at the level of
2012. Having said that, there are sections that are as good as 2012, so it is possible to make wines as good
as last year. We will probably need to be more selective to get there. The challenge in pinning quality on a
vintage early is that high malic acid years are notoriously difficult to figure out early. There is a greater shift
post malolactic fermentation, and the wines change more. 2013 is not a great year to prognosticate early on
“Oregon experienced a very dry, pretty warm year throughout the growing season. Set was variable, starting
early in some areas and later in others. That was even true within the same vineyard, with certain clone and
rootstock combinations starting early and others later. In the middle of set it became quite cold so growers
talked of two different sets leading to a lot of variability. The sites that set early seemed to have a lot of the
peas and pumpkins (hens and chicks, millenderage) while those that started later did not. Overall, the crop
was definitely bigger in Oregon in 2013.”
“Often there seems to be some weather similarities between California and Oregon and that was true until
September. Then when it was warm in California, it was cold and wet in Oregon. Our vineyards in the
Chehalem Mountains got almost 7 inches of rain in September. This caused the areas that had millenderage
to be most affected, with the tiny seedless berries bursting. That brought in the birds. It also brought in fruit
flies, something not seen in such abundance even by old time growers (see vineyardist Andy Humphrey’s
statement below). Sections that were ripest were hit hardest by all these factors.”
“The sections that set later had a more uniform set and generally bigger berries. These sections didn’t have
the split berries, but did end up with some botrytis. Sugars on everything went down, and pH levels went up
due to the rain. Nutrient levels were a record low, due largely to a dry summer and un-irrigated vines. The
wines will be low in alcohol, but seem to have surprisingly good color thus far.”
“There is still a good amount of fruit hanging as the weather has improved.”
Robert Parker, Jr., largely declared the vintage over in Oregon as of October 2 when he reported, “2013
Oregon harvest, which held so much promise 3 weeks ago, has largely been devastated by heat and frequent
rains and invasive fruit fly species.”
Well-known vineyard manager, Andy Humphrey, provided the following correspondence to his clients on
• “Even the oldest guy I could find who has been doing this since 1969 has never seen Drosophila in the fruit
like this. There are a couple of even older guys, but they probably don’t remember.
• Fruit flies are appearing everywhere regardless of AVA, soil, clone and elevation.
• The fruit flies seem to not be interested in white varieties - so far.
• Although you can find them in berries that were split, they seem to be targeting very tight clusters that had
berries off or partially pushed from the stem from previous heavy rains and berry swelling. Almost like those
individual berries or groups of berries were “picked,” and continued to sit there in the middle of the cluster in
warm weather waiting to become food for Drosophila larvae.
• There is a reason they are called vinegar flies. They carry the yeast around with them, the berries they lay
their eggs in are inoculated and begin to ferment with the WRONG yeast. Probably a symbiotic relationship
between the yeast and the conditions for the larvae to thrive? The result for us, however, is what everyone
calls “Sour Rot.” I don’t know if that is scientifically accurate, but it makes sense in my world.
• There are low PHI contact sprays that will kill the adults but not the larvae or eggs.
• The eggs can hatch into larvae in 15 to 24 hours.
• There are long PHI sprays that will kill larvae and eggs, but they infuse the fruit with the residual pesticide. I
don’t know of anyone yet who wants to do that or has actually done that.
• The conclusion is that you can’t kill them unless you can see them. If you can see them, they have already
laid eggs for at least one cycle. If you kill the adults, there is already a new batch on the way. At some point,
depending on various conditions, the larvae molting into adults begins to occur one week after the first cycle
of eggs are laid. And then? Again every 15-24 hours.
• Wineries are jumping on the schedule like flies on fruit.”